Effects of genetic factors on high altitude training performance

  • Havva Eda Cicavoğlu Lokman Hekim University, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Sogutozü, 06510, Ankara, Turkey
  • Cansel Kaya Lokman Hekim University, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Sogutozü, 06510, Ankara, Turkey
  • Mesut Cerit Lokman Hekim University, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Sogutozü, 06510, Ankara, Turkey

Abstract

High altitude is considered to be 1800-6000 meters. With the decrease of atmospheric pressure at this altitude, adequate oxygenation cannot be achieved in the tissues and hypoxia develops in the circulatory system. Athletes aim to provide superior performance by training in hypoxic conditions. Varying adaptations in hypobaric hypoxia environments by geographically separated populations represent well-trained specimens that may be relevant to endurance performance. While inhabitants of the Andes show higher levels of hemoglobin and saturation than Tibetans at similar altitude, Ethiopian climbers maintain oxygen delivery despite the hemoglobin levels and saturation typical in sea level ranges. It can also be predicted a significant relationship between the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) genotype, which affects metabolic efficiency and performance in hypoxic environments (high altitude). One of the genes that develop at high altitude and occur in response to hypoxia is the hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) gene encoded by the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1A) gene. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) gene, which is another gene with angiogenetic factor produced in response to hypoxia, is revealed by the transcription of the HIF-1 alpha gene. Genetic heritage, environmental factors, and the character of exercise loads applied within the framework of lifestyle, neuromuscular development, balanced nutrition, and cultural differences that trigger athletic success may reveal individual changes or differences. Considering all these variables, monitoring and control of performance improvement and athletic achievement graph may become more predictable.

Published
2021-06-21
How to Cite
CICAVOĞLU, Havva Eda; KAYA, Cansel; CERIT, Mesut. Effects of genetic factors on high altitude training performance. Genetics & Applications, [S.l.], v. 5, n. 1, p. 2-9, june 2021. ISSN 2566-431X. Available at: <https://www.genapp.ba/index.php/genapp/article/view/135>. Date accessed: 28 july 2021. doi: https://doi.org/10.31383/ga.vol5iss1pp2-9.
Section
Reviews